What’s in the tablets?
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Based on the description by the chlorine dioxide tablet experts in the persons of Risto and Pirjo (2011), commercial chlorine dioxide tablets do not contain chlorine dioxide but rather a mixture of (1) chlorite salt and (2) anhydrous acid, mixed with a (3) dehydrating agent then compacted into tablets that upon contact with water will generate a certain amount of chlorine dioxide and the ingredients in each tablet may be as follows:
(1) CHLORITE SALT which could be sodium chlorite, potassium chlorite, calcium chlorite, magnesium chlorite, or any combination thereof.
(2) DEHYDRATING AGENT which could be calcium chloride, calcium hydride, calcium oxide, calcium sulfate (gypsum), copper sulfate, aluminum oxide, aluminum sulfate, magnesium oxide, magnesium perchlorate, magnesium sulfate, zeolite (aluminosilicate), phosphorous pentoxide, potassium carbonate, potassium hydroxide, silica gel, sodium, sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfate, sulfuric acid, and any combination thereof; preferably chosen from calcium chloride, calcium sulfate and/or magnesium sulfate, and any combination thereof.
(3) ANHYDROUS ACID SALT which could be sodium acid sulfate (sodium bisulfate), potassium acid sulfate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, aluminum sulfate, ferrous sulfate, and ferric chloride, citric acid, acetic acid, tartaric acid, acetic anhydride, lactic acid, ascorbic acid, glycolic acid, salicylic acid, benzoic acid, and sulfamic acid, and any combination thereof.
Therefore… instead of calling it chlorine dioxide tablets, it could perhaps be specifically given a specific technical name such as anhydrous (or dehydrated) acidified sodium chlorite tablets.
Dear Dr. Naryana Murthy,
As you stated and I quote: "The recommended dosage is around 400g per acre pond at 1m depth. We have observed a decrease in Vibrio loads after application of this product to 5-10 fold"
In the case of Risto and Pirjo (2011), one gram of their anhydrous acidified sodium chlorite tablet formulation immersed in one liter of water generated 3 ppm of chlorine dioxide.
If you will disperse 400g of the tablet formula by Risto and Pirjo (2011) in a one-acre pond at one-meter depth, your chlorine dioxide dosage is going to be about 0.00029 ppm which is way too short of the recommended dose of 0.25 ppm as reported by Suanyuk et al. (2000) for Vibrio inactivation as a Vibriocidal agent and 0.75 ppm for WSSV inactivation as an antiviral agent.
I doubt very much if the manufacturer of the chlorine dioxide tablets that you are using in India is aware of the published work of the chlorine dioxide experts in shrimp aquaculture in persons of Suanyuk et al. (2000) being released locally in a hard-to-find Thai Journal 21 years ago that was written in the Thai language.
Dear Dr. Narayana Murthy,
While one-gram tablet of this commercial anhydrous acidified sodium chlorite tablet preparation can deliver 100 ppm of chlorine dioxide in one liter of water tainting it yellow.
But if you dispense 400 grams of this tablet preparation in a one-acre pond at a one-meter depth that is going to be about 0.01 ppm which is still way too short of the recommended dose of 0.25 ppm as reported by the pioneering chlorine dioxide experts in shrimp aquaculture in persons of Suanyuk et al. (2000) for Vibrio inactivation as a Vibriocidal agent and 0.75 ppm for WSSV inactivation as an antiviral agent.
The U.S. Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry (ATSDR) under the U.S. CDC Department of Health and Human Services reported and I quote: “The EPA has set the maximum concentration in the drinking water at 0.8 milligrams per liter (mg/L) for chlorine dioxide and 1.0 mg/L for chlorite ion”
https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp160-c1-b.pdf (PAGE 2, Section 1.3, 3rd Sentence)
The 0.80 ppm safe limit of chlorine dioxide concetration in drinking water set by the EPA as reported by the ATSDR is within the range for Vibrio inactivation of 0.25 ppm and 0.75 ppm for WSSV inactivation in shrimp ponds set by Suanyuk et al. (2000).
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(1) Scientist Live Magazine